On April 29, 1985, the European Space Agency’s Spacelab launched on the space shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51B. This was the second time the Spacelab went to space and the first time it flew in a fully operational configuration.
pallets had flown to space on three previous shuttle missions, but this
was the first time that the entire laboratory was used to conduct
research in microgravity. Spacelab provided a platform for five fields
of research: astronomy, atmospheric physics, materials science, life
science and fluid dynamics.
The lab was shaped like a cylinder and measured about 23 feet long, or about the length of a short school bus. The pressurized module was housed in the shuttle’s cargo bay. Seven astronauts, two monkeys and 24 rodents launched with Spacelab during STS-51B. After spending a week doing research in space, they landed safely at Edwards Air Force Base.
On April 15, 2005, NASA launched a spacecraft on a mission to rendezvous with a small communications satellite. The launch went according to plan, but the mission ended abruptly when the spacecraft collided with the satellite.
The mission was known as DART, which is short for Demonstration for Autonomous Rendezvous Technology. Its objective was to demonstrate that a fully automated and uncrewed spacecraft could rendezvous with another spacecraft in orbit. But the two spacecraft were not supposed to make contact.
When DART approached its target, it ran out of fuel and inadvertently bumped into it. Investigators determined that DART’s thrusters had been firing excessively because of a problem with its navigation system. It was a soft collision, and neither of the spacecraft were noticeably damaged.
Yuri’s Night is an international celebration held every April 12 to commemorate milestones in space exploration. Yuri’s Night is named for the first human to launch into space, Yuri Gagarin, who flew the Vostok 1 spaceship on April 12, 1961. The launch of STS-1, the first Space Shuttle mission, is also honored, as it was launched 20 years to the day of Vostok 1 on April 12, 1981. In 2011, Yuri’s Night was celebrated at over 567 events in 75 countries on 7 continents.
Yuri’s Night is often called the “World Space Party”.
The goal of Yuri’s Night is to increase public interest in space exploration and to inspire a new generation of explorers. Driven by space-inspired artistic expression and culminating in a worldwide network of annual celebrations and educational events, Yuri’s Night creates a global community of young people committed to shaping the future of space exploration while developing responsible leaders and innovators with a global perspective. These global events are a showcase for elements of culture that embrace space including music, dance, fashion, and art.
NASA’s Curiosity rover mission recently determined that background levels of methane in Mars’ atmosphere cycle seasonally, peaking in the northern summer. These finds have intrigued astrobiologists, because methane is a possible biosignature. The vast majority of methane in Earth’s air is pumped out by microbes and other living creatures.
Some answers may
soon be on the horizon, because that June 2013 detection has just
been firmed up. Europe’s Mars Express orbiter noted the spike
as well from that spacecraft’s perch high above the Red Planet, a new
On March 18, 1980, a Soviet rocket exploded on the launchpad and killed 48 people.
Vostok-2M rocket was about to launch a new spy satellite called
Tselina-D. Military technicians were working to fuel the rocket on the
launchpad at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, a top-secret spaceport a few
hundred miles north of Moscow.
It wasn’t until three years after the explosion happened that the Soviets admitted that this secret spaceport existed. They continued to keep the deadly explosion a secret until 1989. State officials blamed the explosion on human error. But a later investigation determined the cause to be a design flaw with the rocket.
Pioneer 5 (1960
Alpha 1) was a spin-stabilized space probe used to investigate
interplanetary space between the orbits of earth and Venus. The
spacecraft measured magnetic field phenomena, solar flare particles,
and ionization in the interplanetary region. The digital data were
transmitted at 1, 8, and 64 bps, depending on the distance of the
spacecraft from the earth and the size of the receiving antenna.
Weight limitations on the solar cells prevented continuous operation
of the telemetry transmitters. About four operations of 25-min
duration were scheduled per day with occasional increases during
times of special interest. A total of 138.9 h of operation was
completed, and over 3 million binary bits of data were received. The
major portion of the data was received at the Manchester and Hawaii
tracking stations because their antennas provided grid reception.
Pioneer 5 performed normally until April 30, 1960, after which
telemetry transmission became too infrequent for any significant
addition to the data. The spacecraft established a communications
link with the earth from a record distance of 22.5 million miles on
June 26, 1960, which was the last day of transmission.
The Beehive open star cluster (M44, NGC 2632, also known as Praesepe) will be well placed for observation. It will reach its highest point in the sky at around midnight local time.
At a declination of +19°40′, it is easiest to see from the northern
hemisphere; it can be seen at latitudes between 89°N and 50°S.
From Cork, it will be visible in the evening sky, becoming accessible at around 18:39 (GMT) as the dusk sky fades, 16° above your eastern horizon. It will then reach its highest point in the sky at 00:34, 57° above your southern horizon. It will continue to be observable until around 06:28, when it sinks to 16° above your western horizon.
At magnitude 3.1, M44 is tricky to make out with the naked eye except from a dark site, but is visible through a pair of binoculars or small telescope.
Monday 21st January from about 4 to 6 am
See a total eclipse of the Moon early morning Monday 21st January from about 4 to 6 am. The Moon will turn red (“Blood Moon”), but no-one knows in advance just what shade of red, as it depends on the amount of dust, dirt and aerosols in our upper atmosphere, through which sunlight passes to reach the Moon. Eclipse will begin 2:34 am, with totality lasting from 4:40 to 5:11. Here’s hoping for a clear night!
A total lunar eclipse will take place on 21 January 2019 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). For observers in the Americas, the eclipse will take place between the evening of Sunday, January 20 and the early morning hours of Monday, January 21. For observers in Europe and Africa, the eclipse will occur during the morning of January 21. The eclipse will occur during a supermoon. It will also be the last total lunar eclipse until May 2021.
The eclipse will be visible in its entirety from North and South America, as well as portions of western Europe and northwest Africa. From locations in North America, the eclipse will begin during the evening hours of January 20. Observers at locations in Europe and much of Africa will be able to view part of the eclipse before the Moon sets in the early morning (pre-dawn) hours of January 21.
Contact points relative to Earth’s umbral and penumbral shadows, here with the Moon near its descending node
The timing of total lunar eclipses are determined by its contacts:
- P1 (First contact): Beginning of the penumbral eclipse. Earth’s penumbra touches the Moon’s outer limb.
- U1 (Second contact): Beginning of the partial eclipse. Earth’s umbra touches the Moon’s outer limb.
- U2 (Third contact): Beginning of the total eclipse. The Moon’s surface is entirely within Earth’s umbra.
- Greatest eclipse: The peak stage of the total eclipse. The Moon is at its closest to the center of Earth’s umbra.
- U3 (Fourth contact): End of the total eclipse. The Moon’s outer limb exits Earth’s umbra.
- U4 (Fifth contact): End of the partial eclipse. Earth’s umbra leaves the Moon’s surface.
- P4 (Sixth contact): End of the penumbral eclipse. Earth’s penumbra no longer makes contact with the Moon.
The penumbral phases of the eclipse changes the appearance of the Moon only slightly and is generally not noticeable.